Polar Communication and Weather mission (PCW)
Telecommunication services are the backbone of a modern society. Currently, most of the telecommunication needs in remote areas are served by geostationary (GEO) communications satellites. These satellites are placed into the equatorial plane at the altitude of 36,000 km. The GEO satellites today offer a variety of communications and entertainment services to Canadians. However, due to the orbit geometry, there are parts of the Canadian territory that cannot be covered at all by GEO satellites. There are also limitations to what GEO satellites can offer in the High Arctic, particularly for mobile services used by ships, planes and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). That leaves part of the Canadian territory in the Arctic region without access to secure, highly reliable and high-capacity telecommunication solutions.
Weather in the arctic can be harsh and fast-changing. It is the role of government to ensure accurate short-term weather and long-term climate forecasts. These forecasts are important to the functioning of the economy and for the safety and quality of life of Canadians. At present, the data for the Numerical Weather Prediction models is collected by GEO and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) polar orbiting satellites operated by other nations (The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration); Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) and MetOp (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT))). The current development of the third generation of GEO satellites will provide an image of the Earth disc every 15 minutes, from 60° south to 60° north at 0.5-2.0 km spatial resolution. That is a "golden standard" in modern state-of-the-art meteorology. However, the spatial resolution rapidly degrades above 60o, due to the Earth curvature, leaving Polar Regions without coverage from GEO. LEO polar orbiting satellites are capable of providing much better spatial resolution over high latitudes, but on a narrow swath. Thus, they are unable to cover the whole circumpolar area at once, and it may require up to 6 hours for the satellite to image the same target area. In summary, currently there is no source of meteorological data over the Arctic with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to be used in weather prediction. That not only makes weather forecasting in the Arctic extremely difficult, but also has a detrimental effect on the accuracy of weather forecasting in Canada, North America and globally, as the processes in the Arctic have a significant effect on global weather.
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), in partnership with Environment Canada (EC), the Department of National Defense (DND) and supported by other Government Departments, completed in September 2008 the Concept Development and Requirements Identification study (Phase 0) for the PCW project. The outcomes of this study proved that a system of two satellites operating in Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) could provide continuous 24/7 broadband communications services and monitor arctic weather and climate change at the required temporal and spatial resolution, throughout all of the Arctic. In July 2009, CSA and its Government partners awarded a contract to a Canadian industrial consortium led by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) of Richmond, BC to conduct a 20-month Mission Analysis and Concept Definition study. The results of the study confirmed the pertinence and feasibility of a mission like PCW.
CSA also works on the development of related critical technology.
The mission has three main objectives:
- Provide reliable 24/7 high data rate (HDR) communications services in order to:
- enable Canadian Forces, Canadian Coast Guard, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Nav Canada, Transport Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and Environment Canada activities in the high Arctic;
- enhance the connectivity of northern communities to the broadband information backbone infrastructure;
- facilitate exploration and exploitation of natural resources;
- enhance efficiency of the research in the Arctic;
- ensure that Canadians are benefiting from increased air and marine traffic in the Polar region.
- Monitor Arctic weather and climate change for the benefits of Canadians and the Global community in order to:
- significantly improve the accuracy of weather forecasting, including severe weather event warnings;
- improve the understanding of global climate change and the ability to model and predict phenomena associated with it;
- provide unique high-quality operational data acquired over the entire polar region, which is currently not available from any source.
- Monitor space weather in HEO environment in order to:
- support the development of an alerting system for Polar Cap Absorption (PCA) events which strongly affect High Frequency (HF) communication in the Arctic;
- enhance the services of NRCan's Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSPWFC) to include HEO environment, and enable NRCan to develop a new service called “Space Anomaly Investigation System” which will identify Space Weather phenomena that contribute to satellite operation anomalies in HEO;
- support satellite developers and operators by improving existing models of Space Weather environment in HEO;
- support national and international Solar and Earth System scientific research in general.
The PCW project from its inception was a close collaboration between the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), DND and EC, whom recognized the gaps in the communications and weather observation coverage over the Arctic and jointly funded the initial phase of the project.
In order to respond to a wide spectrum of needs of Government Departments, a PCW Users and Science Team (U&ST) was formed in 2007 and is comprised of experts from the Canadian Space Agency, Environment Canada, Department of National Defence, National Resources Canada, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, the Canadian Coast Guard, Transport Canada, Nav Canada, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, and Territorial Governments. The U&ST, co-chaired by DND and EC as main government users of the PCW services, is responsible for capturing needs and requirements and assessing the merits of the project.
The PCW project is encouraging international cooperation and collaboration. On the user side an International User & Science Team has been created to support the interactions between the international community and the project team. Current membership includes parties from countries such as the United States of America, Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden as well as from international organizations like EUMETSAT, the European Space Agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
The PCW space segment consists of two PCW satellites operating in a HEO. Specific orbit characteristics such as orbital period, inclination and eccentricity will depend on the specific HEO that will be chosen.
The main instrument for the meteorological payload will be an imaging spectroradiometer, similar to imagers being developed for the next generation of geostationary weather satellites (e.g. GOES-R, MTG).
The primary Ka-band & X-band telecommunications payload consists of a high-speed two-way system capable of providing continuous broadband services to users throughout the Arctic as far as the North Pole.
A suite of compact space weather instruments to study ionizing radiation completes the list of primary payloads.
One or more "gateway" ground stations will be part of the PCW system, as will be one or more satellite command and control stations.
Ground processing and archiving facilities for PCW meteorological and space weather data will be part of the operational system.
In addition, a list of secondary scientific payloads is currently being evaluated.
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